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Technical Parts of a Last.

Any design and production of a shoe is born from a last, be it wood, plastic or aluminum (Types of Shoe Lasts. According to its material), this piece, which represents the shape of the human foot, is the protagonist within our industry.

 

 

These lasts consist of some key points that are necessary to understand for a correct manufacture of the shoe. Below we will discuss each of the technical parts of the last. 

·Heel height.

As its name indicates it is the distance between the ground and the heel of the last, even if in the foot originally does not exist such height, in the case of the shoe this measure provides some benefits such as weight distribution, avoid the feeling of flat foot and provide comfort to the user.

 

 

For example, if the model is completely flat, more than 50% of the weight falls on the heel, which can generate discomfort, while with an elevation of only 2 cm the weight is distributed 50-50, but if this measure is increased to 6 cm where we would already be talking about a heel, at least 70% of the weight would fall on him on foot. So the weight-height ratio of the heel are directly related. 

·Breaker of the Tip.

A barefoot foot is quite flexible, but when it is enclosed within a shoe, said property is compromised, and precisely to compensate for this exists in the last it breaking the tip or exit.

 

This factor is defined by the flexibility and softness of the sole of the shoe, that is, a hard sole is equal to a wider outlet, while a soft sole will not have almost breaking, as it is itself a flexible footwear. In the specific case of female heels, the exit is directly related to the height of the heel, the higher the exit.

 

 

If we talk about sports shoes, the breaking tip is 1.5 cm and for models dress 1 cm.

"Every shoe is born from a last"

Jorge Martínez.

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·Toe.

The shape of this part of the last is selected according to the model of footwear, ergonomic measures or the functioning of the shoe, this shape can be round, pointed, oblique or shaped like a duck mouth.

 

 

In turn, a surplus measure called tip clearance is left, which will be defined by the form of the last and how far the fingers should go. A standard measure of slack is about 1.5 cm, if we talk about a pointed last this measure must be increased, because the fingers will never occupy the space of the tip. 

·Perimeter of Bola.

It is the measure of the widest part of the last just where the laces go, and precisely the existence of the laces is what will define this height, that is, a footwear without shoelaces is much more adjusted to the foot, therefore, more space is needed in the cone, which results in a lower cone; whereas a sports shoe with space for tongue and laces may have a more inclined cone measure, since the opening of these elements will give greater cavity to the foot. 

·Cuboid.

The cuboid is the bone located just below the ankle, on the side of the foot, in front of the heel hole. Its representation in the last allows the shoe to grip correctly and comfortably.

 

 

If the footwear fits well it is synonymous with the cuboid in the last was designed correctly, on the contrary, if loose the cuboid did not have the proper shape and measure. 

·Song of the Last.

It refers to the entire edge of a shoe, which can be straight or curved according to the design and construction method of the shoe.

 

For example, those made under the strobel system can fuse curved and flat edges, while models with a palm have a 90º edge.

 

 

 

·Sock Allowance.

It is the space left for the insole, which varies according to the model of the footwear. A heel has no sock allowance, the formal menswear has between 0.1 and 0.3 cm, safety boots 0.6 cm and sports shoes 0.3-0.5 cm. 

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